4 swearer espelage in bullying in north american schools 2nd ed figure 11 an expanded social ecological framework of bullying among youth equifinality of bullying behaviors in the mid 1900s ludwig von bertalanffy an austrian biologist developed a theory known. Ecological framework of bullying argues that bullying should be looked at considering factors linked with the levels of the individual peers the family the school the community and the culture swearer and espelage 2011. Social ecological theory has been particularly useful in conceptualisations of traditional face to face verbal and relational forms of bullying eg espelage 2014 this approach acknowledges that health risks are not straightforward or direct outcomes of individual behaviours. Bronfenbrenners 1977 classic ecological theory is used as a framework to review the documented risk and protective factors associated with involvement in school related bullying during childhood and adolescence. A socio ecological framework of bullying ecological systems theory bronfenbrenner 1977 1979 human behaviour interaction of individuals and their wider social environment
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